The other guys were pushed into it a little faster by the lack of transponder space to stay at less channels per transponder. Regardless of the age of technology each encoder costs money ... and one can count on one hand the number of companies trying to multiplex multiple HD streams on dozens of transponders. At the level DBS providers are doing it, you could probably count it on two thumbs (think of all the HD local feeds - something that most companies don't have to deal with). Most companies who would need a multiplexer at all would need one ... and one as a backup. Some would need a second or third multiplexer and perhaps a shared backup. DBS companies would be the largest market needing multiplexers for every transponder on every satellite (including spot beams). But even with the high demand of DBS providers we are only talking about a marketplace for a thousand HD encoders. Maybe a couple thousand, but certainly not a huge marketplace. We are practically talking about individually built devices ... not cheap mass production runs of 10s of thousands or millions. And to get it right with industrial quality it is expensive. $100k each isn't out of the ballpark for such a complicated device. Hopefully that answers your question about the scope and costs of the encoders ... and we can get back to watching the skies for any changes to DirecTV's HD transponders - the purpose of this thread.